The Paris Agreement has a “bottom-up” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals to be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets with the force of law, the Paris Agreement, which emphasizes consensus-building, makes it possible to achieve voluntary and nationally defined targets.  Specific climate goals are therefore promoted politically rather than legally binding. Only the processes that govern the preparation of reports and the consideration of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States â€“ since there are no legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is considered an “executive agreement rather than a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty has received Senate approval, this new agreement does not need further congressional legislation for it to enter into force.  The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  Trump â€“ a climate denier who claimed that climate change is a “hoax” committed by China â€“ announced in June 2017 his intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement. But despite the president`s statement from the rose garden that “we`re going out,” it`s not that easy. The withdrawal process requires the agreement to be in place for three years before a country can formally announce its intention to leave. Then he has to wait a year before leaving the pact.
This means that the United States could officially leave on November 4, 2020 at the earliest, one day after the presidential election. Even a formal withdrawal would not necessarily be permanent, experts say; a future president could be reinstated in just one month. Article 28 of the Agreement allows the Parties to withdraw from the Contract after sending a notice of withdrawal to the Depositary. The denunciation may take place no earlier than three years after the entry into force of the Agreement for the country. The revocation shall take effect one year after notification by the depositary. Alternatively, the agreement provides that withdrawal from the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, would also remove the state from the Paris Agreement. .